Short Dark Tetrad, SD4
Online version of The Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) by Delroy L. Paulhus. This 28-item instrument captures subclinical versions of narcissism, machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism.
In 2002, Paulhus and Williams coined the term Dark Triad to refer to a constellation of three socially offensive personality variables: machiavellianism (a manipulative attitude), narcissism (excessive self-love), and psychopathy (lack of empathy). Consensus is emerging that the constellation of dark personalities should include the sadistic personality.
- Paulhus, D. L., Buckels, E. E., Trapnell, P. D., Jones, D. N. Screening for dark personalities: The Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) European Journal of Psychological Assessment, July 2020