Self-Construal Scale, SCS

Test scores



Independent self-construal is defined as a źbounded, unitary, stable╗ self that is separate from social context. The constellation of elements composing an independent self-construal includes an emphasis on (a) internal abilities, thoughts, and feelings, (b) being unique and expressing the self, (c) realizing internal attributes and promoting one's own goals, and (d) being direct in communication. When thinking about themselves, individuals with highly developed independent self-construals will have as a referent their own abilities, attributes, characteristics, or goals rather than referring to the thoughts, feelings, or actions of others. Similarly, when thinking about others, they will consider the other's individual characteristics and attributes rather than relational or contextual factors. Those with well-developed independent self-construals will gain self-esteem through expressing the self and validating their internal attributes. The independent self tends to express itself directly, to say what it thinks. It is one's inner attributes that are most salient for the independent self-construal in źregulating behavior and that are assumed, both by the actor and by the observer alike, to be diagnostic of the actor╗ (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).

An interdependent self-construal is defined as a źflexible, variable╗ self that emphasizes (a) external, public features such as statuses, roles, and relationships, (b) belonging and fitting in, (c) occupying one's proper place and engaging in appropriate action, and (d) being indirect in communication and źreading others' minds╗. When individuals with highly developed interdependent self-construals think about themselves or others, there is a sense that the self and others are intertwined. In addition, both self and other are not separate from the situation but are molded by it. Harmonious interpersonal relationships and the ability to adjust to various situations are sources of self-esteem for the interdependent self-construal. Therefore, the interdependent self tends to communicate indirectly and to be attentive to others' feelings and unexpressed thoughts ľ that is, to źread others' minds╗. In contrast to the independent self, the interdependent self depends on others, his or her relations with others, and contextual factors to regulate behavior. Because connecting with others and fitting in are primary sources of self-esteem, the situation and others present become źactively and continuously╗ integrated into the interdependent self.