Short Dark Tetrad, SD4
|low ⇒ average ⇒ high level|
norms by authors (n=637)
Narcissism is an egotistical preoccupation with self. Because of all their experience with maintaining their self image, people who score high for narcissism will often appear charming but their narcissism will later lead to extreme difficulty in developing close relationships.
Machiavellianism is a tendency to be manipulative and deceitful. It usually stems from a lack of respect or disillusionment for others.
Psychopathy reflects shallow emotional responses. The relative lack of emotions leads results in high stress tolerance, low empathy, little guilt and leads them to seek extremely stimulating activities, resulting in impusivity and a disposition towards interpersonal conflict.
Sadism means deriving pleasure from inflicting pain. A sadistic person humiliates others, shows a longstanding pattern of cruel or demeaning behavior to others, or intentionally inflicts physical, sexual, or psychological pain or suffering on others in order to assert power and dominance or for pleasure and enjoyment.
- Paulhus, D. L., Buckels, E. E., Trapnell, P. D., Jones, D. N. Screening for dark personalities: The Short Dark Tetrad (SD4). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, July 2020