Pathological Narcissism Inventory, PNI
|Test:||Pathological Narcissism Inventory, PNI|
Hiding the Self
|low ⇒ average ⇒ high score|
norms by authors (n=2,801)
• Contingent Self-Esteem (CSE) reflects a significantly fluctuating experience of self-esteem and acknowledgementof dysregulation in the absence of external sources of admiration and recognition.
• Exploitative (EXP) reflects a manipulative interpersonal orientation.
• Self-Sacrificing Self-Enhancement (SSSE) reflects the use of purportedly altruistic acts to support an inflated self-image.
• Hiding the Self (HS) reflects an unwillingness to show others faults and needs.
• Grandiose Fantasy (GF) reflects engagement in compensatory fantasies of gaining success, admiration, and recognition.
• Devaluing (DEV) reflects disinterest in others who do not provide needed admiration and shame over needing recognition from disappointing others.
• Entitlement Rage (ER) reflects angry affects when entitled expectations are not met.
Narcissistic Grandiosity include intrapsychic processes such as repressing negative aspects of self- and other-representations and distorting disconfirming external information, leading to entitled attitudes and an inflated self-image without requisite accomplishments and skills, as well as engaging in regulatory fantasies of unlimited power, superiority, perfection, and adulation. Such grandiosity is often expressed behaviorally through interpersonally exploitative acts, lack of empathy, intense envy, aggression, and exhibitionism. This may be covertly enacted by providing instrumental and emotional support to others, but concurrently harboring contempt for the person being helped and secretly experiencing the situation as reflecting one's own specialness, goodness, or superior capabilities.
Narcissistic Vulnerability involves the conscious experience of helplessness, emptiness, low self-esteem, and shame. Narcissistic patients may present as long suffering and intractable in their psychic pain, yet find this provides them with a вЂњspecial statusвЂќ that they are resistant to give up. Narcissistic vulnerability is also linked with the use of social avoidance to cope with threats to the self by shamefully withdrawing when ideal self-presentation is not possible or needed admiration is not forthcoming.
- Aaron L. Pincus, Emily B. Ansell et al. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory // Psychological Assessment, 2009. 21(3)